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Abstracts in English
Fábics, Tamás: Late Ancient Slavic dialects in the Carpathian Basin reconstructed based on modern Hungarian toponyms

According to many researchers' opinion, a relative unity of Ancient Slavic language could have taken place until IV century A.D. Starting from IV century and until VIII-IX century A.D. it is only the late Ancient Slavic dialects that can be referred to. Heterogeneous results of linguistic changes of late Ancient Slavic period observable in certain Ancient Slavic dialects or dialectic groups are attributable to the solution of unity. At the time of Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin the Ancient Slavic unity had already ceased to exist.

In the Carpathian Basin the Magyars got in touch with Slavs whose language they borrowed a variety of words and toponyms from. Numerous toponyms borrowed in such a manner by the Hungarian language can shed light on the language characteristics of Late Ancient Slavic dialects of the Carpathian Basin. Based on the modern Hungarian toponyms this work establishes three types of progression of Early Ancient Slavic sound combinations *ktь (*ktĭ), *tь (*ti), *gь (*gi), *kь (*ki).

 

Keywords: Ancient Slavic dialects, Hungarian toponyms, Hungarian language, progression of sound combinations, split of Ancient Slavic unity

 
Balogh, Andrea: The (in)visibility of text in video games

On the surface video games are visual: the gamers use various platforms to manage their avatars (their in-game characters) in diverse virtual worlds to attain numerous goals. Besides that, there are many elements in the background affecting the game and the player's success, which are based on text. These are the two major attributes which one usually sees in a game advertisement: the promise of lifelike visuals and/or a complex story. In this paper I focus on the textual components, because usually they are less striking and while the players might also pay them less attention, they are essential for successful gaming. I mention the so-called Easter eggs (the messages concealed in the game, insider jokes), the inscriptions and translations, the lore (the full background) of the video games, and related to that, the factors of how players can meet these texts. My aim is to illustrate the (in)visibility of text in video games, and why we have to search for it nevertheless.

Keywords: video game text, lore, Easter eggs, visibility of text, video game studies

 
Sobczak, Anna: Multimodal metaphors in TV commercials of four Polish beer brands

Cognitive Linguistics views metaphor as both a process and a product of understanding a concept in terms of another (Lakoff and Johnson 1980). Conceptual metaphor occur primarily in thought therefore it can manifest not only in language but also in other modes, such as visuals, gestures, non-verbal sound, or music, which can yield a wide range of monomodal and multimodal metaphors (Forceville 2008, 2009). Cultural background may have a considerable influence on the choice, construction, and elaboration of metaphors (Kövecses 2005), and this issue has been examined also in studies on multimodal metaphors in American, Ukrainian, and Russian television commercials of beer (Lantolf and Bobrova 2012, Bobrova 2013). This paper offers an analysis of multimodal metaphors found in 12 television commercials of four Polish beer brands, and argues that both the cultural context and the advertising strategies used for the beer brands play a crucial role in the construction of multimodal metaphors in TV commercials.

Keywords: multimodal metaphor, TV commercials, language and culture, advertising strategies, Polish beer

 
Hári, Dániel: Communication between humans and machines in the science fiction movies

The paper presents the alternative types of future of the movie art history's science fiction genre. The contexts are the information society, robotics, and artificial intelligence. The author enlightens important pieces of information about motion picture, science fiction narrative world, and the political side of the genre. The following chapters show the ideas of movie artists about the digital revolution's possible results and consequences by movie analysis. The first chapter presents the communication between humans and the computer with the help of the television series called Mr. Robot. After that the author brings up some lines from the stories of significant science fiction movies, which include topics about theories of robots, androids, and cyborgs. The mentioned movies are The Terminator, 2001: A Space Odyssey, I, Robot, Ghost in the Shell, and Blade Runner. Finally the analysis turns to augmented and virtual realities by showing the matters of the HBO's series titled Westworld, and the feature film called The Matrix.

 

Keywords: communication, human-computer communication, artificial intelligence, science fiction, movie

 
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